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Table 1 List of included studies related to titanium allergy tests

From: Diagnostic tests for titanium hypersensitivity in implant dentistry: a systematic review of the literature

Author Year Study type Allergen Number of patients Number of patients with positive patch test reaction Positive patch test reaction [%] Negative patch test reaction [%]
De Graaf et al. 2018 Retrospective chart review Titanium 458 26 5.7 94.3
Ti dioxide 329 3 0.9 99.1
Ti(IV) isopropoxide 272 8 2.9 97.1
Ti(IV) oxalate 216 17 7.9 92.1
Ti lactate 45 2 4.4 95.6
Ti citrate 45 1 2.2 97.8
Holgers et al. 1992 Clinical trial Titanium 18 0 0 100
Sicilia et al. 2008 Clinical cohort study Titanium 35 9 25.7 74.3
Hosoki et al. 2018 Cohort study Ti dioxide 270 4 1.5 98.5
Sun et al. 2018 Prospective cohort study Ti chlorid 207 0 0 100
Müller et al.   Cohort study Ti(IV) oxid 56 0 0 100