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Table 5 Cochrane risk of bias (Robins-I) tool for non-randomised studies

From: The use of three implants to support a fixed prosthesis in the management of the edentulous mandible: a systematic review

Year First author Study design Confounding Selection of participants Classification of interventions Deviation from interventions Missing data Measurement of outcomes Selection of results Overall
2001 De Bruyn [10] Prospective Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low Moderate
2003 Engstrand [11] Prospective Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate
2003 Henry [12] Prospective Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
2004 Van Steenberghe [13] Prospective Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
2009 Gualini [14] Retrospective Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
2011 Hatano [16] Retrospective Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
2012 Olivia [17] Retrospective Moderate Moderate Serious Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Serious
2012 Rivaldo [18] Prospective Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Low Moderate
2018 Beresford [19] Prospective Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate
2018 Primo [21] Prospective Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Low Moderate
2019 Menini [22] Case series Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate Serious
2019 Mezzari [23] Retrospective Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Low Moderate
2020 Anya [24] Retrospective Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate
2020 Higuchi [25] Prospective Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Low Moderate Low Moderate