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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The use of three implants to support a fixed prosthesis in the management of the edentulous mandible: a systematic review

Year First Author Study design Patients Implants Mean age years Mean follow up years Follow up range months Implant survival Prosthetic survival Marginal bone loss Loading System
2001 De Bruyn [10] Prospective 20
(8M, 12F)
60
Straight
64 (41-80) 3 36 90.5% 85% 2.1 mm Immediate Brånemark®
2003 Engstrand [11] Prospective 95
(53M, 42F)
285
Straight
68.5 (45-89) 2.5 12-60 93.3% 99% 0.73 mm Immediate Brånemark Novum®
2003 Henry [12] Prospective 51
(28M, 23F)
153
Straight
62 (43-79) 1 12 91% 94% 0.4 mm Immediate Brånemark Novum®
2004 Van Steenberghe [13] Prospective 50
(25M, 25F)
150
Straight
57 (45-80) 1 12 92.7% 95% 1.1 mm Immediate Brånemark Novum®
2009 Gualini [14] Retrospective 15
(11M, 4F)
45
Straight
64 (55-78) 5 60 91% 87% NR Immediate Brånemark Novum®
2011 De Kok [15] Prospective RCT 10
(5M, 5F)
30
Distal tilted
62 (47-76) 1 12 100% 100% NR Delayed Astra Tech Osseospeed®
2011 Hatano [16] Retrospective 132
(65M, 67F)
396
Distal tilted
63 (35-85) 5 12-132 96.7% 92.4% NR Immediate Brånemark®
2012 Oliva [17] Retrospective 12
(8M, 4F)
36
Straight
49 (39-79) 5 60 100% 100% NR Delayed Straumann®/Osstem®
2012 Rivaldo [18] Prospective 33
(12M, 21F)
99
Straight
NR (38-83) 1.5 18 97.8% NR 0.8 mm Immediate NR
2018 Beresford [19] Prospective 12
(5M, 7F)
36
Straight
69 (60-81) 1 12 100% 100% NR Immediate Nobel Biocare®
2018 Cannizzaro [20] Prospective RCT 12
(NR)
36
Straight
57.5 (39-78) 1 12 91.7% 97.2% 0.22 mm Immediate Sweden & Martina®
2018 Primo [21] Prospective 20
(4M, 16F)
60
Distal tilted
64 (46-81) 1.5 18 98.3% 100% 1.75 mm Immediate Brånemark
Novum®
    22
(4M, 18F)
66
Distal tilted
71 (57-83) 1.5 18 98.5% 100% 1.75 mm Delayed Brånemark Novum®
2019 Menini [22] Case Series 4
(3M, 1F)
12
Straight
54 (41-65) 16 192 100% 100% 2.2 mm Immediate Brånemark Novum®
2019 Mezzari [23] Retrospective 58
(23M, 35F)
174
NR
63 (46-61) 5 60 97.1% 93.1% 2.29 mm Immediate Brånemark Novum®
2020 Anya [24] Retrospective 29
(16M, 13F)
87
Distal tilted
65 (NR) 6 72 100% NR 1.0 mm Immediate Hi-Tec Logic Plus®
2020 Higuchi [25] Prospective 110
(50M, 60F)
330
Straight
62 (NR) 1 12 97.5% 97.3% 0.62 mm Immediate/Early Nobel Biocare Trefoil®
  1. NR not reported