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Table 1 Characteristics (authors, study design and subject, geometry and location of implant placement, study groups, follow-up period and outcomes) of studies with animal subjects included in the present systematic review

From: Does vitamin D have an effect on osseointegration of dental implants? A systematic review

Authors Study design Study subjects Number of implans, n Implant dimension Ø × L in mm Implant location Study groups, n = subjects Follow-up Outcome
Kelly et al. [31] Animal study 14 rats 28 Ti Implants 1 × 2 Femur Group-1 (n = 7): vitamin d deficient
Group-2 (n = 7): control
2 weeks Group-1 has significant decreased push in test and BIC compared to control
Vandersteenhoven et al. [32] Animal study 56 rats 168 Implants NA Abdominal region Group-1 (n = 27): vitamin D3 supp
Group-2 (n = 24): control
Group-3 (n = 5): VD3 supp
1, 2, 3 and 10 weeks Group-2 showed less remodeling, NBF and bone resorption than Group-1
Pimentel et al. [33] Animal study 36 rats 72 Ti implants 2.5 × 4 Tibia Group-1 (n = 18): control
Group-2 (n = 18): Ca, vit D, Mg and Zn supp
30 days No significant differences in BIC or NBF between the groups
Wu et al. [22] Animal study 30 rats N/A Ti 1 × 10 Femur Group-1 (n = 6): control; Group-2 (n = 6): diabetic; Group-3 (n = 6): insulin-treated diabetic; Group-4 (n = 6): VD3-treated diabetic; Group-5 (n = 6): VD3 + insulin-treated 12 weeks Group-5 had significant higher BIC, BV/TV and BA compared to Group-2 and similar to Group-1
Akhavan et al. [30] Animal study 48 rats N/A Ti 1.2 × 7 Tibia Group-1 (n = 17): VD3 supp
Group-2 (n = 10): control
3 and 6 weeks No significant difference in BIC or NBF between the groups
Liu et al. [24] Animal study 30 mice 60 Ti implants 1 × 4 Femur Group-1 (n = 10): control
Group-2 (n = 10): nephrectomy
Group-3 (n = 10): nephrectomy and VD3 supp
2 weeks Group-3 had significantly higher BIC and BV/TV around implant than Group-1 and -2. Group 3 had significant higher resistance of implants compared to Group-2
Dvorak et al. [23] Animal study 50 rats 100 Ti Implants 1 × 3 Tibia Group-1 (n = 16): VD3 depletion
Group-2 (n = 17): VD3 repletion 6
Group-3 (n = 17): controls
4 weeks Group-1 had significant less cortical BIC compared to Group-3
Group-2 had significant decreased BV/TV compared to Group-1 and -3
Zhou et al. [25] Animal study 20 rats 40 Ti Implants 1.8 × 3,5 TIbia Group-1 (n = 10): VD3 supp
Group-2 (n = 10): control
8 weeks Group-1 had significant increased BV/TV, BIC, BA and implant resistance compared to Group-2
Nakamura et al. [34] Animal study 64 rats 128 Ti Implants 1.4 × 23 Femur Group-1 (n = 8): control
Group-2 (n = 8): ovariectomized
Group-3 (n = 16):VD3 supp
Group-4 (n = 16): alendronate
Group-5 (n = 16): alendronate and VD3 supp
4 weeks Group-5 had significant higher BA in compared to Group-2
Group-5 showed higher resistance compared to control after 12 weeks of supp
Satué et al. [28] Animal study 6 rabbits 24 Ti implants 6.25 × 2 Tibia Grooup-1 (n = 8): control
Group-2 (n = 8): low dose 7-DHC and vit. E coated implants
Group-3 (n = 8): high dose 7-DHC and vit.E coated implants
8 weeks No significant differences in BIC or NBF between the groups
Naito et al. [29] Animal study 12 rabbits 28 Ti implants 3.75 × 7 Tibia Group-1 (n = 7): control
Group-2 (n = 7): coated with VD3 c = 10–8 M (mol/L)
Group-3 (n = 7): c = 10–7 M (mol/L) Group-4 (n = 7): c = 10–6 M (mol/L)
6 weeks No significant differences in BIC or NBF between the groups
Salomó-Coll et al. [26] Animal study 6 dogs 24 Ti implants 3,75 × 10 Mandibula Group-1 (n = 12): control
Group-2 (n = 12): VD2 coated implants
12 weeks Group-2 had significant higher total BIC and NBF in compared to control
Cho et al. [27] Animal study 12 rabbits 48 Ti implants 3.75 × 7 Tibia Group-1 (n = 6): coated with PLGA/VD3 solution
Group-2 (n = 6): control
4 and 12 weeks Group 1 had significant greater BIC compared to Group-2
  1. VD3:1,25(OH)2 D3; 25 (OH): 25 (OH) Hydroxyvitamin D; VD2: Ergocalciferol; 7-DHC: 7-dehydrocholesterol; vit. E: vitamin E; BIC: bone to implant contact; NBF: New bone formation; BV/TV: Bone volume/Tissue volume; LHD: Lactate dehydrogenase; Supp.: Supplementation, N/A: not available BA: bone area density