Skip to main content

Table 1 Influence of implant design on ZAGA minimally invasive osteotomy goals

From: Round and flat zygomatic implants: effectiveness after a 1-year follow-up non-interventional study

Goal Implant feature Results
Place the implant head at the optimal dental position using a prosthetically driven implant trajectory Implant axis 55º correction Easier ideal prosthetic positioning
Implant-to-abutment junction is not located at the zygomatic implant critical zone (ZICZ). This eliminates the possibility of bone resorption due to eventual bacterial leakage
Achieve optimal anterior–posterior distribution of the implants Reduced apical diameter The reduction of the apical diameter increases the possibility of divergent positioning of the implant shafts, thus improving the final AP distribution
Achieve maximal implant primary stability Apical tapered self-cutting design If a conservative osteotomy is performed, the difference between the diameter of the last drill and the progressive section of the implant achieves greater primary stability
Preserve as much bone as possible at the maxillary wall and alveolar bone Threads and/or micro-threads are incorporated at the implant head/neck level Threads, together with implant stability, facilitate osteointegration and bone stability
Maximize bone-to-implant contact (BIC) along the length of the whole implant. This includes alveolar, maxillary wall, and zygomatic bone The tapered apical design experiences an increased diameter at the level of the implant neck. The drilling protocol shows a difference between implant diameter and last drill diameter (0,5 mm at the apical level increasing to 1,4 mm at the implant neck/head) Increased BIC along the entire length of the implant
Achieve complete sealing of the osteotomy by the implant body two types of implant section, round and flat The clinician may decide which design would better adapt to the performed osteotomy
Protect sinus integrity at the implant head/neck level to prevent late sinus–oral communication Implant-to-abutment connection is not located at the ZICZ
Threads and/or micro-threads at the head neck level
Machined surface at implant head and body
No bacterial leakage and subsequent bone resorption is expected at the ZICZ
Threads together with stability and alveolar bone contact will enhance the possibility of osseointegration
If a soft tissue recession occurs, machine-surfaced implants will maintain surrounding soft tissue health better than a rough-surfaced implant
Prevent soft tissue dehiscence A design presenting a flat surface is available By facing the flat surface against the soft tissue, any eventual compression of its vessels is diminished, thus decreasing the possibility for dehiscence