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Table 6 List of the included clinical studies and its main characteristics

From: Systematic review on diabetes mellitus and dental implants: an update

Study (author/year) Study type No. of patients Age (mean) Time of examination Duration of study [months] Number of implants Survival rate [%] Diabetestype Control Diabetes therapy Glycemic control [HbA1c %] Duration of diabetes mellitus
Eskow et al. (2017) [10] Retrospective 24 59.7 ± 9.6 k.A. 34 59 98.6 (1 year); 96.6 (2 years) 2 No controlgroup n.d. “Poorly controlled”; 9.55 ± 1.0% 14.2 ± 7.7 years
Ormianer et al. (2018) [11] Retrospective 169 55.9 ± 10.474 1995–2015 104 1112 94 2 n.d. n.d. “Moderately controlled” < 8%; “well-controlled” up to 7% At least 2 years
Castellanos-Cosano et al. (2019) [12] Retrospective 346 56.12 ± 12.15 2014–2017 48 44,415 n.d. n.d. No controlgroup n.d. n.d. n.d.
Alrabiah et al. (2019) [13] Cross-sectional 79 Prediabetic group: 54.3 ± 3.6; nondiabetic group: 51.2 ± 2.4 n.d. 60 80 100 Prediabetes Nondiabetic group n.d. Prediabetic group: 6.1[5.9–6.3]%; nondiabetic group: 4.1[4–4.8]% Prediabetes diagnosis 5.4 ± 0.2 years
Sghaireen et al. (2020) [14] Retrospective 257 Diabetic group: 62.41 ± 13.62y; nondiabetic group: 59.24 ± 29.36 y 2013–2016 36 742 Diabetic group: 90.18; nondiabetic group: 90.95 n.d. HbA1c < 6.5% n.d. “Well controlled” 6.5–8%; no further information + L8 n.d.
Papantonopoulos et al. (2017) [15] Cross-sectional 72 61.9 ± 11.1 2014–2015 n.d. 237 n.d. n.d. Nondiabetic Clusters n.d. n.d. n.d.
Atarchi et al. (2020) [16] Cross-sectional 1343 61.66 ± 12.77 2002–2017 n.d. 2323 n.d. n.d. Nondiabetic group n.d.  < 8%;“controlled diabetics” n.d.
Alasqah et al. (2018) [17] Cross-sectional 86 Diabetic group: 57.6 ± 5.5; nondiabetic group: 61.6 ± 4.3 y n.d. 72 172 n.d. 2 Nondiabetic group; HbA1c 5.3 ± 0.3% n.d. “Well controlled” diabetes group: 4.8 ± 0.2%; nondiabetic group: 5.3 ± 0.3% 10.1 ± 3.5 years
Singh et al. (2020) [18] Retrospective 826 n.d. n.d. 120 1420 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Al Zahrani et al. (2019) [19] Prospective 67 Well controlled diabetics: 54.6 ± 9.9; poorly controlled diabetics: 53.8 ± 7.9 2009–2011 84 124 99 (7 years) 2 Poorlycontrolled diabetics “Well controlled” diabetics: controlled by diet and anti-diabetic drugs (w or w/o insulin); “poorly controlled” diabetics: no control by diet or drugs “Well controlled” diabetics: ≤ 6.0% “poorly controlled” diabetics: > 8.0% Well controlled: 6.6 years; poorly controlled: 11.8 years
Erdogan et al. (2015) [20] Prospective 24 Diabetic group: 52.5 ± 7.3; nondiabetic group: 49.5 ± 9.3 k.A. 12 (and more) 43 100 2 n.d. All diabetic patients on active treatment (oral therapy, insuline, combination) 6.7 ± 0.3% 8.2 ± 3.5 years
Oztel et al. (2017) [21] Retrospective 177 60.2 ± 15.1 2011–2013 36 302 95 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Gomez-Moreno et al. (2015) [22] Prospective 67 Groups: HbA1c ≤ 6%: 60 ± 7.2; HbA1c = 6.1–8%: 59 ± 8.1; HbA1c = 8.1–10%: 62 ± 6.8; HbA1c ≥ 10.1%:64 ± 5.6 n.d. 36 67 n.d. 2 Four groups: HbA1c ≤ 6%; HbA1c = 6.1–8%; HbA1c = 8.1–10%; HbA1c ≥ 10.1% n.d. Four groups: HbA1c ≤ 6%; HbA1c = 6.1–8%; HbA1c = 8.1–10%; HbA1c ≥ 10.1% n.d.
Dogan et al. (2015) [23] Prospective 20 Diabetic group: 53.54 ± 4.01; nondiabetic group: 52.14 ± 3.93 2010–2011 7 39 n.d. 2 HbA1c 4.87 ± 0.53% All diabetic patients: oral antidiabetics, exclusion criteria: insulin-therapy “Well controlled”: 6.37 ± 1.28% “At least 5 years”
Okamoto et al. (2018) [24] Retrospective 289 Complications group: 62.8 ± 2.6; no complications group: 54.7 ± 13.1 2006–2013 0.75 298 100 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Al Amri et al. (2015) [25] Prospective 91 HbA1c ≤ 6%: 48.5(45–52); HbA1c = 6.1–8%: 50.1(46–55); HbA1c = 8.1–10%: 50.5(45–59); k.A. 24 n.d. n.d. 2 HbA1c < 6% k.A. Three groups: HbA1c ≤ 6% (controls included); HbA1c = 6.1–8%; HbA1c = 8.1–10% n.d.
de Araujo Nobre et al. (2016) Retrospective 70 59(41–80) 1999–2007 60 352 89.8; group with type 1 diabetes mellitus: 80; group with type 1 diabetes mellitus: 90.5 1 and 2 No controlgroup “Treated”; no further information n.d. n.d.
Al Amri et al. (2017) [26] Retrospective 108 Immediately loaded group: 50.6 ± 2.2; conventional loading group 51.8 ± 1.7 n.d. 24 108 100 2 No controlgroup n.d. No initial HbA1c; At 12- and 24-month follow-up, the mean HbA1c levels in group 1 (immediately loading) and 2 (conventional loading) were 5.4%(4.8–5.5%) and 5.1%(4.7–5.4%) and 5.1%(4.7–5.2%) and 4.9%(4.5–5.2%) Immediately loaded group: 9.2 ± 2.4 years; conventional loaded 8.5 ± 0.4 years
Al Amri et al. (2017) [27] Prospective 45 Diabetic group: 42.4(40–46); nondiabetic group: 41.8(39–44) n.d. 24 45 n.d. 2 HbA1c < 4.5% (visually, boxplot) Antihyperglycemic drugs, dietary control “Well controlled”: no exact data given, but visually (boxplots) the baseline HbA1c is significantly higher in the diabetic group (visually < 7%) than in nondiabetic control group (visually < 4.5%) 14.5 ± 0.7 months
Soh et al. (2020) [28] Retrospective 89 n.d. 2019–2020 3 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Mohanty et al. (2018) [29] Cross-sectional 208 n.d. n.d. 96–120 425 Diabetic group: 70.7, periodontitis group: 83.3, smokers group: 80.9, bruxism group:86.3 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Aguilar-Salvatierra et al. (2016) [30] Prospective 85 Group 1: 57 ± 3.8; group 2: 57 ± 3.8; group 3: 61 ± 1.9 n.d. 48 85 Group 1: 100; group 2: n.d.; group 3: 86.3 2 Three groups: HbA1c ≤ 6%; HbA1c = 6.1–8%; HbA1c = 8.1–10% Oral hypoglycemic agents with similar doses Three groups: HbA1c ≤ 6%; HbA1c = 6.1–8%; HbA1c = 8.1–10% n.d.
Rekawek et al. (2021) [31] Retrospective 286 n.d. 2006–2012 60 (and more) 748 n.d. n.d. HbA1c < 8% k.A.  > 8% “uncontrolled diabetes” n.d.
Jagadeesh et al. (2020) [32] Retrospective 342 n.d. n.d. 24 580 87.5 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Kandasamy et al. (2018) [33] Retrospective 200 47.5 n.d. 96–180 650 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Pedro et al. (2017) [34] Prospective 23 71.05(65–80) 2009–2013 48 57 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Yadav et al. (2018) [35] RCT 88 Flap group: 54.35 ± 14.51; Flapless group: 57.82 ± 13.99 2013–2015 30 88 n.d. 2 n.d. “Controlled” (under medication) Inclusion criterion: HbA1c less than 7%; Flap group: 6.59 ± 0.42%; Flapless group: 6.75 ± 0.30% Flap group: 6.55 ± 4.01 years; Flapless group: 6.91 ± 3.86 years
Khan et al. (2016) [36] Retrospective 83 n.d. 2010–2015 n.d. 220 86,8 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
French et al. (2021) [37] Retrospective 4247 53.8 ± 13.5 1995–2019 54 10,871 98.9 (3 years), 98.5 (5 years), 96.8 (10 years), and 94.0 (15 years) Mellitus n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Alberti et al. (2020) [38] Retrospective 204 57.3 ± 13.7 2005–2018 68 929 Diabetic group: 96.51, nondiabetic group: 94.74 1 and 2 n.d. Diet:5, Metformin:7, Insuline:3, Sulfonylureas:1, Metformin + Sulfonylureas:3, Metformine + Pioglitazone + Glicazide:1 6.40 ± 0.36% (isurgery) n.d.
Krebs et al. (2019) [39] Retrospective 106 70.9(45–91) 1991–1997 227 274 n.d. Mellitus n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Dalago et al. (2017) [40] Retrospective 183 59.3 1998–2012 68 938 98.3 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
De Araújo Nobre et al. (2017) [41] Prospective 22,009 48.5 ± 15.6 2012–2015 24 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Mayta-Tovalino et al. 2019) [42] Retrospective 431 n.d. 2006–2017 132 1279 82.02 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Kissa et al. (2020) [43] Cross-sectional 145 58.3 04/2017–12/2017 77 642 n.d. Mellitus n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Krennmair et al. (2018) [44] Prospective 85 56.7 ± 11.2 2007–2009 60 295 99 2 n.d. n.d.  ≤ 7,5% controlled (> 7.5% = Exclusion criteria) n.d.
Al-Sowygh et al. (2018) [45] Cross-sectional 93 Three diabetic groups; group 1: 51.5(46–57), group 2: 53.7 (42–56), group 3: 55.9 (49–59); nondiabetic group: 50.1(41–53) n.d. n.d. 148 n.d. 2 Non-diabetic individuals with HbA1c < 6% (mean:5.8%) n.d. Group 1: HbA1c 6.1–8%(mean:6.7%); group 2: HbA1c 8.1–10%(mean:9.2); group 3: HbA1c > 10%(mean:11.4); Group 1: 10.7(7–11.2) years, group 2: 9.4(8–10.6) years, group 3: 12.6(9.9–14.1) years
Corbella et al. (2020) [46] Retrospective 112 57.3 ± 13.7 2004–2019 52 344 91.69 (12 years) Mellitus No controlgroup n.d. n.d. n.d.
Al Amri et al. (2017) [47] Prospective 24 Prediabetic group: 44.5(41–49); nondiabetic group: 43.3(39–47) n.d. 12 24 100 Prediabetes HbA1c: (baseline:) 4.4 ± 0.2% n.d. Baseline: Prediabetic group:6.1 ± 0.4; nondiabetic group:4.4 ± 0.2; follow-up values given n.d.
Weinstein et al. (2020) [48] Cross-sectional 248 63.4 (women); 62.5 (men) Unclear 5 1162 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
  1. n.d. no data provided