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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Comparison of general and aesthetic effects between flapless and flap techniques in dental implantation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Studies Size (implants) Location Implantation time Flapless technique Implant type Follow-up time Outcomes (flapless vs flap) Loss of follow-up
PPI CBL (mm) KW width (mm) SR (100%) BOP (100%) Peri-implant PD VAS
Wadwa 2015 [25] 32 Mandibular first molar Delayed Punch NR 0,3,9,15 m NR 0.02 ± 0.01 VS 1.42 ± 0.09 NR NR NR NR NR 0
Bashutski 2013 [26] 24 Maxillary anterior or premolar tooth Delayed Punch Two-piece 0,3,6,9,15 m 2.57 ± 0.46 VS 2.28 ± 0.46 NR 3.33 ± 0 .74 VS 3.97 ± 1.59 NR NR NR NR 0
Kumar 2018 [27] 20 Posterior mandible Delayed Punch NR 0.6.12 m NR NR NR NR NR 1.40 ± 0.50 VS 2.00 ± 0.70 1.33 ± 0.50 VS 3.11 ± 1.17 (1 day)
0.33 ± 0.50 VS 0.67 ± 0.50 (3 days)
2
Wang 2017[28] 40 Mandibular first molar Delayed Drill preparation One-piece 0,1,3,6,12,24 m NR 0.70 ± 0.30 VS 0.50 ± 0.40 3.70 ± 1.10 VS 4.00 ± 1.30 100 VS 100 NR 2.20 ± 0.05 VS 2.70 ± 0.02 NR 0
Sunitha 2013 [29] 40 Anterior and premolar region Delayed Drill preparation Two-piece 0,6,12.24 m 2.75 ± 0.05 VS 1.95 ± 0.06 0.03 ± 0.01 VS 0.20 ± 0.06 NR NR NR NR NR 0
Grassi 2019 [30] 30 Maxillary premolar area Immediate IIP Two-piece 0,6 m NR NR NR NR NR NR 5.32 ± 1.21 VS 7.51 ± 0.98 (1 day)
1.82 ± 1.13 VS 2.98 ± 1.82 (3 days)
1
Tsoukaki 2013 [31] 30 Full dentition Delayed Punch One-piece 1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks NR 0 vs 0.29 ± 0.06 NR NR NR 1.93 ± 0.06 VS 2.43 ± 0.06 0.68 ± 0.22 VS 2.06 ± 0.22 (1 day) 0
Stoupel 2016 [32] 39 Maxillary anterior region Immediate IIP Two-piece 3,6,12 m NR 0.89 ± 0.80 VS 0.95 ± 0.92 NR NR NR NR NR 3
Froum 2017 [22] 28 Full dentition Delayed Punch One-piece 8.2y 2.70 ± 0.80 VS 2.67 ± 0.75 0.25 ± 0.25 VS 0.70 ± 0.25 NR 100 VS 100 15.38 VS 21.43 2.10 ± 0.40 VS 2.40 ± 0.30 NR 1
Yang 2017 [33] 160 Maxillary anterior region Immediate IIP NR 12 m NR NR NR NR 6.25 VS 16.25 1.72 ± 0.30 VS 1.76 ± 0.33 NR 0
Covani 2008 [34] 20 Full dentition Immediate IIP Two-piece 0.6 m NR 0.80 ± 0.90 VS 0.30 ± 0.40 NR NR NR NR NR 1
Bömicke 2017[35] 38 Posterior mandible Delayed Punch Flapless: one-piece; flap: two-piece 0,12,36 m NR 0.86 ± 0.63 VS 0,63 ± 0.43 NR 94.74 VS 100 NR 2.90 ± 0.65 VS 3.40 ± 0.70 NR 3
Cannizzaro [36] 143 Any two separate edentulous areas Delayed and immediate Drill preparation or IIP NR 0,12 m NR 0.24 ± 0.29 VS 0.33 ± 0.50 NR 97.22 VS 97.18 NR NR NR 4
Pisoni 2016[37] 76 Premolar and molar sites Delayed Punch NR 0, 2 (lower) or 3 (upper), 36 m NR 0.20 ± 0.76 VS 0.17 ± 0.94 NR NR NR NR NR 7
  1. NR not reported, IIP immediate implant placement, m months