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Table 7 Biological outcomes

From: Esthetic, mechanical, and biological outcomes of various implant abutments for single-tooth replacement in the anterior region: a systematic review of the literature

Study Implant survival rates Biological—clinical outcomes
Andersson et al. 2001 [15] 100% p > 0.05 for plaque and bleeding measurements between abutments at 1 Y
Buccal fistula: 1 in c, recession:1 in t/2 in c
Galluci et al. 2011b [51] 100% p < 0.05 for FMPS at 2 Y between t and c (increased scores in the all-ceramic group)
FBIC p < 0.05 between B and CI at 1 Y and 2 Y
Hosseini et al. 2011 [66] 100% p > 0.05 for mPII and mBI between groups at B and 1 Y
Ceramic group 1 Y: 1 fistula, 3 suppuration on probing, 2 PPD ≥ 5 mm, 1 weak pain (most not ideal marginal adaptation—p < 0.05 for ceramic group)
Metal group 1 Y: 3 suppuration and PPD ≥ 5 mm
Brandenberg et al. 2017 [48] 100% PPD no difference between groups/ mean PPD of all implants higher at B than 1 Y (P < 0.05)
BOP significantly increased in both groups after 1 Y (non-significant between group comparison)
KM, MT slight increase over time (p > 0.05)
At 1 Y 1 implant (control) small recession
Carrillo de Albornoz et al. 2014 [67] 100% PPD, REC: p > 0.05 between B and 12 M or between groups
FMBS: improvement for both groups from B to 1 M (p < 0.05)
Patil et al. 2017 [62] 100% p > 0.05 for PPD between groups at B and at 1 Y
Baldini et al. 2016 [68] 100% PPD, BOP, REC: P > 0.05 between B and 12 M or between groups
MT: no changes
Paolantoni et al. 2016 [69] 100% PI, BI p > 0.05 between groups
Thoma et al. 2018b [56] 100% PD p > 0.05 at B, 6 M, and 1 Y between groups and intragroup changes
Plaque changes non-significant
BOP increase between B and 1 Y in CR white group significant
BOP not significant difference between groups
Wittneben et al. 2020 [59] 100% 1Y: Low mPLI, mSBI, PD (p > 0.05 between groups)
Mean KM 3.6 mm
Group B KM significant difference between B and 1 Y
3Y: p > 0.05 between groups for mPLI, mSBI, PPD, and KM
Within each group p < 0.05 for mPLI between time points (B and 6 M, 6 M and 1 Y, 6 M and 3 Y)
Amorfini et al. 2018 [73] 100% 2 mucositis cases (1 in each group)
BOP, PPD, mPI: p > 0.05
Eisner et al. 2018 [49] 100% PD, BOP, PI at 3 Y p > 0.05 between groups
MT higher at 3Y in implants than teeth (p < 0.05)
MT higher in control (p = 0.013) at 3 Y
MT implant increased over time in both groups (p < 0.05)
KM test 3Y 3.22 mm vs KM control 3Y 3.67 mm (p = 0.037)
Thoma et al. 2018a [54] 100% PCR, PPD, KT stable over time and comparable between implants and teeth
Median BOP at B: 33% CR, 17% SR
Median BOP at 6 M: 17% CR, 17% SR
Heierle et al. 2019 [53] 100% N/A
Laass et al. 2019 [50] 100% p = 0.042 in PD at 5 Y between groups (increased scores in the test group)/intragroup differences between B and 5 Y not significant
In the c group KM was a little wider and the MT was higher (p > 0.05)
p > 0.05 for PCR, BOP
Kraus et al. 2019 [57] 81.8% Median PD 3.0 mm in SR and 3.0 mm in CR (p = 0.664)
Intragroup changes in PD from B to 3Y were statistically significant (p < 0.05)
BOP and PCR: p > 0.05 between groups
Median KM between implants (SR) and control teeth significant (p = 0.007)
Median KM between implants (CR) and control teeth non-significant (p = 0.42)
MT p > 0.05 between implants and teeth in both groups and in intragroup comparison (B vs 3 Y)
One implant from CR was lost at 9 M and one at 3 Y
At 3 Y 2 implants peri-implant mucositis (one in CR and one in SR)
Koutouzis et al. 2019 [74] 96.3% Plaque, BOP, and PPD at crown placement and 1 Y (1 Y PPD: CX: 74.4% PD < 3, 25.6% PD 4-5 mm, CV: 66.7% PD < 3, 32.1% PD 4-5 mm, 1.2% PD ≥ 6 mm): no statistical difference between groups
Marginal mucosa position changes p > 0.05 between groups (correlation between mucosa position and buccal bone thickness)
  1. PPD pocket probing depth, BOP bleeding on probing, KM width of keratinized mucosa, PCR plaque control record, KT keratinized tissue, GI simplified gingival index, mPLI or MPI modified plaque index, SBI sulcus bleeding index, REC recession index, FMBS full mouth bleeding score, DIB distance from implant shoulder to the first bone to implant contact, FMPS full mouth plaque score, FBIC first bone to implant contact, MT mucosal thickness, B baseline, Y year, CR cemented restoration, SR screw-retained restoration, c control, t test