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Table 6 Mean color difference (ΔΕ) data

From: Esthetic, mechanical, and biological outcomes of various implant abutments for single-tooth replacement in the anterior region: a systematic review of the literature

Study Mean ΔΕ values Mean mucosal thickness (mm) Mean ΔΕ values according to soft tissue thickness
    Thin (≤ 2 mm) Thick (> 2 mm)
Thoma et al. 2018a [54] CM: 5.51 ± 1.56/SR: 7.42 ± 5.05 (p > 0.05) CM: 3.38 ± 0.99/SR:4.06 ± 1.06 N/A N/A
Buchi et al. 2014 [23] t: 6.3 ± 2.2/c: 4.6 ± 1.8 (p > 0.05) t: 1.6 ± 0.4/c: 1.8 ± 0.7 (p > 0.05) t: 6.2 ± 1.9/c: 4.2 ± 1.6 (p > 0.05) t: 6.5 ± 4.6/c:4.9 ± 2.1 (p > 0.05)
Thoma et. al 2016b [55] Abutment vs control tooth: P: 7.55 ± 3.02
W: 7.52 ± 2.29
Crown vs control tooth: P: 6.16 ± 2.48
W: 8.31 ± 3.33
N/A Crown vs control tooth:
P: 4.50 ± 1.93
W: 9.72 ± 3.82
(p > 0.05)
Crown vs control tooth:
P: 6.88 ± 2.45
W: 8.31 ± 2.98
(p > 0.05)
Jung et al. 2008 [13] ΔΕ implant: 7.4-7.6 (p > 0.05 between groups)
ΔΕ tooth-implant overall: All-ceramic 3.4 ± 1.4
PFM 5.2 ± 2.3 (p > 0.05)
ΔΕ tooth-implant grafted (p > 0.05)
ΔΕ tooth-implant non-grafted (p = 0.04) (PFM higher)
All-ceramic: 3.4±0.8
PFM: 2.9±0.9 (p>0.05)
N/A N/A
Bittner et al. 2020 [65] ΔΕ when change from gray to pink abutment still above clinical threshold N/A 6M: t:6.2/c:6.14 6M: t: 8.42 /c:7.96
Martinez-Rus et al. 2017 [71] Soft tissue level: Ti: 11.56 ± 3.4
GTi: 8.96 ± 3.1
PTi: 10.68 ± 4.2
Zr Ti-base 6.06 ± 3.2
Coronal level: Ti: 10.42 ± 6.3
GTi: 9.16 ± 6.5
PTi 8.66 ± 6.1
Zr Ti-base 5.76 ± 2.9
1.63±0.64 mm N/A
Correlation between ΔΕ and thickness
Ti: p = 0.024
PTi: p = 0.048
N/A
Lops et al. 2017 [70] Gold: 11.43 ± 4.05
Ti: 13.55 ± 6.91
Zr: 11.37 ± 4.67 (p > 0.05)
*all over clinical threshold ΔΕ 8.47
2.57±0.5 mm G: 9.82
Ti: 13.86
Zr: 10.86 (p > 0.05)
N/A
Bressan et al. 2011 [22] G: 8.9 ± 0.4 (SE)
Ti: 11 ± 0.4 (SE) (p < 0.05)
Zr: 8.5 ± 0.4 (SE) *over ΔΕ 3.7
N/A G: 8.6 ± 1.4 (SE)
Ti: 9.5 ± 1.4 (SE)
Zr: 7.5 ± 1.4 (SE)
G: 9.1 ± 0.8 (SE)
Ti: 11.9 ± 1.2 (SE)
Zr: 8.9 ± 0.7 (SE) (p > 0.05)
Thoma et al. 2017 [72] ΔΕ abutment test: 8.27 ± 4.03
ΔΕ abutment control: 8.49 ± 3.59
ΔΕ crown test: 8.32 ± 3.57
ΔΕ crown control: 7.61 ± 4.03 (p > 0.05)
N/A ΔΕ crown c vs ΔΕ crown t:
−2.08±3.82
(p < 0.05)
ΔΕ crown c vs ΔΕ crown t:
0.75 ± 2.30
  1. *ΔE color difference, CR cemented restoration, SR screw retained restoration, M months, t test, c control, Zr zirconia, Ti titanium, G gold, P pink, W white