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Table 4 Mechanical outcomes

From: Esthetic, mechanical, and biological outcomes of various implant abutments for single-tooth replacement in the anterior region: a systematic review of the literature

Study Criteria Abutment fracture Abutment loosening Prosthesis complication Abutment fracture rate Mechanical failure rate
Andersson et al. 2001 [15] N/A 5 during prep or placement
2 minor chip fractures (B)
2 after loading (1 M and 7 M)
No crown fracture of c group at 2 Y 7% 8.99%
Galluci et al. 2011b [51] N/A No No 2 minor ceramic chipping in t No 10.00%
Hosseini et al. 2011 [66] N/A No No 1 ceramic chipping and 1 crown loss of retention at 1Y in metal group No 2.67%
Thoma et al. 2016a [47] USPHS 1 in t before 1 Y No 1 chipping (in t) and 3 occlusal roughness (in c) at 1 Y 5% 25.00%
Carrillo de Albornoz et al. 2014 [67] N/A 2 (in t) No No 8 % 8.00%
Baldini et al. 2016 [68] N/A No No No No 0.00%
Paolantoni et al. 2016 [69] N/A 2 (one piece)
1 (two-piece)
No 3 all-ceramic (one piece) fractured (26 M) 10.3% 8.11%
Wittneben et al. 2017 [58]
Wittneben et al. 2020 [59]
N/A No No 1 crown fracture (in t) at 1 Y
1 major ceramic chipping
1 crown replacement due to esthetics at 3 Y (in c)
No 7.69%
Amorfini et al. 2018 [73] N/A 1 in CR 2
one in each
1 chipping in SR
1 crown decementation
3% 15.63%
Eisner et al. 2018 [49] USPHS No 1 (in t) at 3Y 2 (one in each group) minor chipping
6 (4t/2c) occlusal wear at 3 Y
5% (same as 1Y) 45.00%
Thoma et al. 2018a [54] USPHS No No 2 minor chipping in CR at B
1 poor marginal adaptation in CR at B and 6M
50% contact points alpha score at B and 6M
N/A 9.09%
Heierle et al. 2019 [53] USPHS 1 in SR No 1 veneer fracture in SR
4 in each group occlusal wear
3.7% 14.71%
Laass et al. 2019 [50] USPHS No No 12 slight occlusal roughness (5t, 7c)
2 larger occlusal roughness
2 minor chipping
5% (same as 1Y) 80.00%
Kraus et al. 2019 [57] USPHS 6 (2 in CR and 4 in SR) No Slight occlusal roughness: 4 in SR and 9 in CR
Minor chipping in 1 in CR
13.6% 45.45%
  1. SR screw retained restoration, CR cemented restoration, t test, c control, B baseline, M month, Y year