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Table 3 Descriptive characteristics of RCTs

From: Esthetic, mechanical, and biological outcomes of various implant abutments for single-tooth replacement in the anterior region: a systematic review of the literature

Study No_ patients (baseline) No_ abutments follow-up (baseline) Abutment location Follow-up (years) Intervention and control abutment type
Andersson et al. 2001 [15] 75 85 (89) Maxilla and mandible 1-3 Prefabricated alumina/prefabricated Ti
Jung et al. 2008 [13] 30 30 N/A N/A Customized Alumina based/customized Ti or gold
Bressan et al. 2011 [22] 20 20 Maxilla N/A Customized Ti, gold alloy and Zr/contralateral tooth
Galluci et al. 2011a [51]
Galluci et al. 2011b [52]
20 17 (20) Maxilla 2 Prefabricated Ti with In-Ceram alumina blank/prefabricated Ti with PFM (cast-on gold coping)
Hosseini et al. 2011 [66] 36 75 Maxilla and mandible 1 Prefabricated Zr/prefabricated metallic
Büchi et al. 2014, Thoma et al. 2016a, Brandenberg et al. 2017 [23, 47, 48] 20 20 Maxilla and mandible 1 Customized Zr with pink ceramic submucosal veneering/customized Zr without veneering
Carrillo de Albornoz et al. 2014 [67] 30 25 (30) Maxilla 1 Prefabricated Zr/prefabricated Ti
Patil et al. 2014, Patil et al. 2016, Patil et al. 2017 [60,61,62] 26 52 Maxilla and mandible 1 Prefabricated curved grooved Ti/
Prefabricated conventional divergent Ti
Baldini et al. 2016 [68] 24 22 (24) Maxilla and mandible 1 Prefabricated Zr/prefabricated Ti
Paolantoni et al. 2016 [69] 65 74 Maxilla 4 Customized Zr (1 piece)/customized Zr (2 pieces)
Thoma et al. 2016b [55], Thoma et al. 2018b [56] 44 43 (44) Maxilla and mandible 1 Customized Zr (screwed)/customized Zr (cemented) with or without submucosal veneering
Gil et al. 2017, Gil et al. 2019, Bittner et al. 2020 [63,64,65] 40 33 (40) Maxilla 6 months Customized, pink-anodized Ti/customized gray Ti
Lops et al. 2017 [70] 15 15 Maxilla and mandible N/A Customized Ti, gold alloy and Zr/contralateral tooth
Martinez-Rus et al. 2017 [71] 20 20 Maxilla N/A Customized Ti, gold-anodized Ti, pink hued Ti, and Zr on Ti-base/contralateral tooth
Thoma et al. 2017 [72] 24 24 Maxilla and mandible N/A Customized fluorescent Zr on Ti-base/customized Zr
Wittneben et al. 2017 [58], Wittneben et al. 2020 [59] 40 39 (40) Maxilla 3 Prefabricated Zr/CAD/CAM Zr
Amorfini et al. 2018 [73] 32 30 (32) Maxilla 10 Customized Zr with ceramic veneer fused on abutment/customized Zr
Eisner et al. 2018 [49] 20 18 (20) Maxilla and mandible 3 Customized Zr with pink ceramic submucosal veneering/customized Zr without veneering
Thoma et al. 2018a [54] 33 33 Maxilla and mandible 6 months Customized Zr directly veneered with veneering ceramic/customized Zr
Heierle et al. 2019 [53] 27 27 Maxilla and mandible 3 Customized Zr directly veneered with veneering ceramic/customized Zr
Laass et al. 2019 [50] 20 16 (20) Maxilla and mandible 5 Customized Zr with pink ceramic submucosal veneering/customized Zr
Kraus et al. 2019 [57] 44 32 (44) Maxilla and mandible 3 Customized Zr (screwed)/customized Zr (cemented) with or without submucosal veneering
Koutouzis et al. 2019 [74] 28 26 (27) Maxilla 1 Customized Ti convex/customized Ti concave profile