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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Outcomes of dental implants in young patients with congenital versus non-congenital missing teeth

  * Non-congenital missing teeth (N = 32) Hypodontia (N = 25) p value Oligodontia (N = 53) p value
General characteristics
Age (years) 26.0 (21.7–38.0) 23.0 (18.3–27.7) 0.007 25.0 (19.4–29.6) 0.700
Sex (N, %)    0.047   0.983
 Males 20 (62.5) 9 (36.0)   33 (62.3)  
 Females 12 (37.5) 16 (64.0)   20 (37.7)  
Ethnicity (N, %)    0.680   0.144
 Caucasians 26 (81.3) 22 (88.0)   48 (90.6)  
 Africans 5 (15.6) 2 (8.0)   2 (3.8)  
 Asian 1 (3.1) 1 (4.0)   3 (5.7)  
Smoking (N, %)    0.056   0.146
 Yes 9 (28.1) 2 (8.0)   8 (15.1)  
 No 23 (71.9) 23 (92.0)   45 (84.9)  
Missing teeth 3 (1–10) 3 (1–5) 0.855 9 (6–18) < 0.001
 Maxilla 2 (0–7) 2 (0–5) 0.879 5 (2–8) < 0.001
 Mandible 1 (0–7) 1 (0–4) 0.879 4 (1–10) 0.002
Missing teeth overall (N, %)    0.517   < 0.001
 Maxilla 66 (55.5) 48 (64.0) 0.909 287 (53.5) < 0.001
 Mandible 54 (45.0) 27 (36.0) 0.798 249 (46.5) < 0.001
Placed implants per patient
 Maxilla 2 (1–4) 1 (0–5) 0.855 3 (1–5) < 0.001
 Mandible 0 (0–4) 1 (0–3) 0.907 3 (0–6) 0.004
Placed implants overall (N, %)      
 Maxilla 51 (60.7) 35 (63.6) 0.928 165 (54.5) 0.002
 Mandible 33 (39.3) 20 (36.4) 0.325 138 (45.5) 0.013
Type of bone graft (N, %)    0.234   0.319
 Ascending ramus 18 (36.7) 13 (52.0)   28 (52.8)  
 Extra-oral 4 (8.2) 0 (0.0)   8 (15.1)  
  Skull 1 -   3  
  Iliac crest 3 -   5  
 Alloplastic 1 (2.0) 1 (4.0)   0 (0.0)  
 No bone augmentation 26 (53.1) 11 (44.0)   17 (32.1)  
Additional procedures (N, %)    0.650   0.176
 BSSO 5 (15.6) 2 (8.0)   3 (5.7)  
 SARME/Bimax 2 (6.2) 1 (4.0)   13 (24.5)  
 Other surgical procedures 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   3 (5.7)  
 No surgical procedures 25 (78.1) 22 (88.0)   34 (64.2)  
Regular visits at the dentist (N, %)    0.217   0.053
 Yes 24 (75.0) 22 (88.0)   48 (90.6)  
 No 8 (25.0) 3 (12.0)   5 (9.4)  
Implants outcomes
Follow-up time (years; median) 3.3 (0.6–12.5) 2.7 (0.2–9.0) 0.342 4.2 (0.3–9.9) 0.301
Follow-up time (years; mean) 4.4 (3.1–5.6) 3.1 (2.1–4.1) 0.106 4.3 (3.5–5.1) 0.902
Lost implants (N, %)
 Maxilla 0 (0.0) 2 (5.7) 0.254 3 (1.8) 0.171
 Mandible 1 (3.0) 0 (0.0) 0.373 3 (2.2) 0.593
Satisfaction (N, %)    0.039   0.044
 Yes 27 (84.4) 25 (100.0)   51 (96.2)  
 No 5 (15.6) 0 (0.0)   1 (1.9)  
 N/A 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (1.9)  
Complaints (N, %)    0.706   0.408
 Yes 4 (12.5) 4 (16)   3 (5.7)  
 No 28 (87.5) 21 (84)   49 (92.5)  
 N/A 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (1.9)  
Mobility (N, %)    0.203   0.714
 Yes 2 (6.3) 0 (0.0)   4 (7.5)  
 No 30 (93.8) 25 (100)   48 (90.6)  
 N/A 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (1.9)  
Bleeding (N, %)    0.452   0.645
 Yes 16 (50.0) 10 (40.0)   29 (54.7)  
 No 16 (50.0) 15 (60.0)   23 (43.4)  
 N/A 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (1.9)  
Recurrent infections (N, %)    0.479   0.460
 Yes 9 (28.1) 5 (20.0)   20 (37.7)  
 No 23 (71.9) 20 (80.0)   32 (60.4)  
 N/A 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (1.9)  
  1. Footnote: *- reference group, N number of participants
  2. Values are numbers and percentages for categorical variables or medians (90% range) for ordinal and continuous variables with a skewed distribution Follow-up time is presented as median (90% CI) and mean (95% CI). Differences were tested using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test for continuous variables and chi-squared test for categorical variables; p < 0.05 is considered statistically significant and presented in italics