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Table 3 Comparisons of concavity depth (CD, mm), concavity angle (CA, degree), torque (degree), and deep bone thickness (dBT, mm) at different levels (0, 5, and 10 mm) in the “perforation” and “non-perforation” sites of investigated teeth in anterior mandibular region

From: Risk assessment of labial bone perforation in the anterior mandibular region: a virtual immediate implant placement study

  Total Perforation Non-perforation  
Variables Mean (SD) Median (IQR) Mean (SD) Median (IQR) Mean (SD) Median (IQR) p*
Alveolar ridge
 Concavity depth (CD) 4.44 (1.96) 4.2 (3.0) 5.59 (1.93) 5.6 (2.9) 4.12 (1.85) 3.8 (2.6) < 0.001
 Cavity angle (CA) 144.95 (7.36) 145.4 (9.4) 140.53 (7.13) 142.1 (9.0) 146.17 (6.95) 146.7 (8.8) < 0.001
Deep bone thickness
 dBT (0) 8.20 (2.02) 8.0 (2.7) 6.87 (1.67) 6.6 (2.6) 8.57 (1.95) 8.4 (2.8) < 0.001
 dBT (5) 9.41 (2.04) 9.3 (2.6) 8.01 (1.79) 8.0 (2.8) 9.80 (1.93) 9.7 (2.6) < 0.001
 dBT (10) 10.84 (2.00) 10.8 (2.5) 9.77 (1.96) 10.0 (2.0) 11.14 (1.90) 11.0 (2.6) < 0.001
Tooth-alveolar ridge
 Torque (T) 161.40 (8.62) 161.9 (12.1) 166.29 (7.94) 167.4 (11.3) 160.05 (8.32) 160.8 (10.9) < 0.001
  1. The deep bone thickness (dBT) was measured at 0, 5, and 10 mm from tooth root apex and along the long axis of the mandible, presented as dBT (0), dBT (5), and dBT (10), respectively [26]. The “perforation” was defined as the virtual implant extruded out of the apical outline of the labial cortical bone, whereas “non-perforation” was defined as the virtual implant within outline of the labial cortical bone. *The Mann-Whitney U tests were used to examine the differences of CD, CA, T, and dBT at “perforation” and “non-perforation” sites. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05
  2. Abbreviation: IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation