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Table 2 Frequency distribution of labial bone perforation of investigated teeth in the anterior mandibular region

From: Risk assessment of labial bone perforation in the anterior mandibular region: a virtual immediate implant placement study

  Perforation Non-perforation  
Variables n % n % p
Total 193 21.6 701 78.4  
Side      0.464
 Right 101 22.6 346 77.4  
 Left 92 20.6 355 79.4  
Tooth type      < 0.001
 Central incisor 63 21.1 235 78.9  
 Lateral incisor 45 15.1 253 84.9  
 Canine 85 28.5 213 71.5  
Side and tooth type      0.002
 Central incisor, right 38 25.5 111 74.5  
 Central incisor, left 25 16.8 124 83.2  
 Lateral incisor, right 21 14.1 128 85.9  
 Lateral incisor, left 24 16.1 125 83.9  
 Canine, right 42 28.2 107 71.8  
 Canine, left 43 28.9 106 71.1  
Tooth-alveolar ridge (CRDAP)      < 0.001*
 CRDAP class I 3 3.1 94 96.9  
 CRDAP class II 49 29.2 119 70.8  
 CRDAP class III 0 0.0 93 100.0  
 CRDAP class IV 141 26.3 395 73.7  
  1. The classification of crestal and radicular dentoalveolar phenotype (CRDAP) of mandibular anterior teeth was categorized according to the thickness of dentoalveolar bone at both crestal and radicular zones [25]. The “perforation” was defined as the virtual implant extruded out of the apical outline of the labial cortical bone, whereas “non-perforation” was defined as the virtual implant within outline of the labial cortical bone. The chi-square tests were used for examining the frequency distribution of labial bone perforation (“perforation” vs. “non-perforation”) in different “sides,” “tooth types,” and “side and tooth types,” respectively. *The Fisher’s exact test was used to examine the frequency distribution of labial bone perforation (“perforation” vs. “non-perforation”) in different “tooth-alveolar ridge (CRDAPs).” The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05