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Table 1 Classification of the breaking modes and their characteristics

From: Retention of different temporary cements tested on zirconia crowns and titanium abutments in vitro

Type Breaking modes Characteristics
I Adhesive cement fracture on the abutment The abutment is largely cementless. The cement is completely in the crown lumen.
II Adhesive/cohesive cement fracture on the abutment There are cement residues on the abutment but not to an extent of the full thickness of the cement film. The majority of the cement is located inside the crown.
III Cohesive cement fracture The abutment and the crown lumen are mainly covered with cement. The separation takes place within the cement film.
IV Adhesive cement fracture at the crown The crown lumen is largely free of cement. The cement is completely on the abutment.
V Adhesive/cohesive cement fracture at the crown In the crown lumen are cement residues but not the full thickness of the cement layer. The majority of the cement is on the abutment.