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Table 4 Risk factors for MRONJ

From: Clinical considerations for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a comprehensive literature review

Risk factors
Local risk factors Anatomical factors mandible rather than maxilla maxillary or mandibular tori exostoses knife-edge ridgemylohyoid ridge
Dental treatment tooth extraction implant treatment (placement, bone augmentation, periimplantitis, removal) periodontal surgery endodontic treatment (especially apicectomy) other oral surgery except for above-mentioned risk factors
Dental prosthesis fixed prostheses (non-passive fit) ill-fitting dentures
Other oral conditions excessive bite force poor oral hygiene xerostomia
Systemic risk factors Medications chemotherapy for malignant tumors corticosteroids
Systemic diseases oncology patients receiving IV bisphosphonates or high-dose denosumab diabetes osteoporosis rheumatoid arthritis cardiovascular disease (hypertension, hyperlipidemia and angina) Sjögren’s syndrome sarcoidosis hypocalcemia hypoparathyroidism osteomalacia vitamin D deficiency renal dialysis anemia Paget’s disease of bone
Others tobacco use alcohol intake obesity advanced age
Other risk factors Genetic factors single-nucleotide polymorphisms (CYP2C8, SIRT1/HERC4)