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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Socket seal surgery techniques in the esthetic zone: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials

Author Year Country A priori sample size estimation Sample Size (sites) Socket seal surgery approach Type of bone graft material Socket integrity Method of dimensions measurement Follow-up Outcome measurements Setting Funding sources
Intervention Comparison Radiographic Clinical
Width p Height p Buccal gingival thickness p   
Fotek et al. [34] 2009 USA No 18 (18) T: acellular dermal matrix C: PTFE membrane MBA NR Clinical 4 m NR NR T−5, − 0.06 ± 0.24 mm
C−5, − 0.17 ± 0.24 mm
0.28 University BioHorizons and Osteogenics Biomedical
Jung et al. [35] 2013 Switzerland Yes 20 (20) T: collagen matrix C: Free gingival graft DBBM-C At least 50% of the buccal bone wall CBCT 6 m T−1, − 1.2 ± 0.8 mm
C-1, − 1.4 ± 1.0 mm
0.9 T, 0.0 ± 1.2.mm
C, + 1.2 ± 2.9 mm
0.44 NR University University of Zurich and Geistlich Pharma AG
T−3, − 0.6 ± 0.6 mm
C−3, − 0.6 ± 0.5 mm
0.77
T−5, − 0.1 ± 0.2 mm
C−5: − 0.6 ± 0.9 mm
0.09
Karaca et al. [36] 2015 Turkey No 10 (20) T: free gingival graft C: spontaneous healing NONE NR CBCT 3 m T0, − 0.99 ± 0.8 mm
C0, − 1.22 ± 1.0 mm
0.24a T, + 0.6 ± 1.2.mm
C, − 1.03 ± 2.9 mm
0.03a NR University The authors declare no sources of funding.
Meloni et al. [37] 2015 Italy Yes 30 (30) T: collagen matrix C: soft tissue punch graft DBB Fenestration or dehiscence ≥3 mm on CBCT CBCT 5 m T−1, − 0.67 ± 0.31 mm
C−1, − 0.54 ± 0.25 mm
0.34 T, − 1.47 ± 0.48 mm
C, − 1.60 ± 0.69 mm
0.67 NR Private practice The authors declare no sources of funding.
T−3, − 0.91 ± 0.26 mm
C−3, − 0.83 ± 0.38 mm
0.61
T−5, − 0.31 ± 0.18 mm
C−5, − 0.26 ± 0.17 mm
0.55
Natto et al. [38] 2017 USA Yes 28 (28) T: collagen matrix C: collagen sponge FDBA Presence of buccal plate Clinical + CBCT 4 m T−4, − 1.47 ± 1.29 mm
C−4, − 1.21 ± 1.22 mm
0.49 T, − 0.79 ± 3.07 mm
C, − 0.30 ± 1.09 mm
0.58 T−4, + 0.59 ± 1.28 mm
C−4, + 0.90 ± 0.90 mm
0.46 University Tufts University School of Dental Medicine
T−7, − 0.96 ± 0.97 mm
C−7, − 0.90 ± 1.02 mm
0.77 T−7, − 0.23 ± 1.42 mm
C−7,+ 0.47 ± 1.16 mm
0.17
T−10, − 0.57 ± 0.99 mm
C−10, − 0.54 ± 0.95 mm
0.84 T−10, − 0.13 ± 1.07 mm
C−10, + 0.05 ± 1.62 mm
0.73
Schneider et al. [39] 2014 Switzerland Yes 19 (19) T: collagen matrix C: free gingival graft DBBM-C At least 50% of the buccal bone wall Clinical 6 m NR NR T, − 1.15 ± 0.50 mm
C, − 1.16 ± 0.68 mm
1 University University of Zurich and Geistlich Pharma AG
  1. T and C superscript indicates the apical reference point from alveolar bone crest in mm (0, − 1, − 2, − 3, − 4, − 5, − 7, − 10 mm)
  2. MBA Mineralized bone allograft, DBBM-C Demineralized bovine bone mineral + collagen matrix, DBB Demineralized bovine bone, FDBA Freeze-dried bone allograft, CBCT Cone beam computed tomography
  3. aStatistically significant