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Table 2 Comparison of manual and machine-driven insertion mode

From: Implant primary stability depending on protocol and insertion mode — an ex vivo study

  Insertion mode — manual insertion Insertion mode — machine-driven insertion
  n Mean (SD) CI n Mean (SD) CI
ISQ 45 68.33 (6.83) 66.14–70.51 45 70.25 (5.52) 68.38–72.12
IT (Ncm) 45 90.56 (31.27) 80.56–100.56 45 83.94 (31.81) 73.17–94.7
TO (Ncm) 45 93.59 (32.3) 83.27–103.92 45 89.80 (37.32) 77.18–102.43
  1. ISQ implant stability quotient, IT insertion torque, TO torque out, SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval