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Table 5 Dental implant-related probable risk indicators for the occurrence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis

From: Analysis of risk indicators for prevalence of peri-implant diseases in Turkish population

Variable   Peri-implant mucositis Peri-implantitis
Univariate regression Multivariate regression Univariate regression Multivariate regression
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Gender Female 0.606 (0.468–0.785) 0.000*     0.527 (0.386–0.720) 0.000*    
Smoking Yes 1.960 (1.458–2.634) 0.000*     3.413 (2.430–4.793) 0.000*    
Frequency of maintenance < 2/year 2.076 (1.605–2.684) 0.000*     2.020 (1.478–2.760) 0.000*    
Systemic disease Yes 2.301 (1.663–3.185) 0.000* 2.196 (1.090–4.427) 0.028* 3.058 (2.116–4.419) 0.000* 3.789 (1.667–8.614) 0.001*
Diabetes Yes 3.741 (1.770–7.907) 0.001*     4.460 (2.007–9.911) 0.000*    
Periodontal Diagnosis Periodontitis 3.666 (2.792–4.814) 0.000* 6.931 (3.303–14.544) 0.000* 4.336 (3.038–6.190) 0.000* 18.613 (7.304–47.427) 0.000*
Jaw Upper 0.586 (0.454–0.758) 0.000*     0.433 (0.316–0.592) 0.000*    
Position Upper anterior 1.205 (0.816–1.779) 0.348*     0.747 (0.447–1.250) 0.267    
  Upper posterior 0.512 (0.394–0.664) 0.000*     0.474 (0.343–0.655) 0.000*    
  Lower anterior 2.945 (1.885–4.601) 0.000*     2.775 (1.680–4.583) 0.000*    
  Lower posterior 1.106 (0.849–1.440) 0.454     1.487 (1.086–2.037) 0.013*    
KT < 2 mm Yes 8.819 (5.841–13.316) 0.000* 5.389 (2.637–11.010) 0.000* 17.439 (11.133–27.315) 0.000* 8.013 (3.494–18.380) 0.000*
PPD   4.806 (3.882–5.951) 0.000* 1.570 (1.105–2.230) 0.012* 24.837 (18.477–33.385) 0.000* 8.338 (5.540–12.548) 0.000*
PI   30.209 (20.120–45.357) 0.000* 6.726 (3.829–11.812) 0.000* 51.175 (32.298–81.083) 0.000* 5.205 (2.570–10.541) 0.000*
GI ≥ 2 13.870 (10.685–18.004) 0.000*     40.955 (15.184–110.467) 0.000*    
BoP   4.665 (3.860–5.637) 0.000* 3.645 (2.817–4.716) 0.000* 6.046 (4.911–7.444) 0.000* 4.353 (3.239–5.851) 0.000*
Bone augmentation Yes vs. No 0.979 (0.691–1.388) 0.905     0.850 (0.550–1.313) 0.464    
Type of prosthesis Removable vs. fixed 3.744 (2.369–5.917) 0.000*     3.103 (1.857–5.186) 0.000*    
Years from loading   0.992 (0.985–0.999) 0.023*     0.995 (0.987–1.003) 0.240    
Brand I 0.921 (0.694–1.221) 0.565     1.281 (0.920–1.784) 0.143    
  II 1.064 (0.749–1.512) 0.727     0.189 (0.094–0.378) 0.000*    
  III 1.019 (0.784–1.323) 0.890     0.761 (0.550–1.052) 0.098    
  IV 1.077 (0.709–1.636) 0.729     2.757 (1.780–4.272) 0.000*    
  V 0.965 (0.617–1.511) 0.877     0.912 (0.526–1.582) 0.744    
  1. KT keratinized tissue, PPD probing pocket depth, PI plaque index, GI gingival index, BoP bleeding on probing, OR odds ratio
  2. *Indicates statistically significant