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Table 1 Qualitative evaluation by SEM analysis of micro- and macrothread areas of rough surface implants

From: Evaluation of decontamination methods of oral biofilms formed on screw-shaped, rough and machined surface implants: an ex vivo study

Rough surface (microthread)No effectFairGoodExcellent
G  + 
US +  
Air +  
Rot  + 
Las+   
Rough surface (macrothread)No effectFairGoodExcellent
G  + 
US  + 
Air  + 
Rot  + 
Las+   
  1. No effect: Surface was cleansed ineffectively and covered with an enormous amount of amorphous material, debris and bacteria
  2. Fair: Surface was cleansed partially well but far from the ideal and covered with certain amount of amorphous material, debris, and bacteria
  3. Good: Surface was cleansed effectively but not perfect and covered with a little amount or partially no amount of amorphous material, debris, and bacteria
  4. Excellent: Surface was cleansed ideally and covered with no or only a small amount of amorphous materials, debris, and bacteria