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Table 3 Comparison of deviations and angulations between short sleeves (4 mm) and long sleeves (10 mm) for the pilot-drill guided implant insertion. The means, their standard deviations (SD), medians, minima and maxima are shown. The p-values are resulting from a pair-wise comparison. P-values for statistically significant differences are marked in bold font

From: Pilot-drill guided vs. full-guided implant insertion in artificial mandibles—a prospective laboratory study in fifth-year dental students

Parameter Group Mean ± SD Median Minimum Maximum p-value
Mesio-distal deviation implant/sleeve short sleeve -5.368 6.640 -2.900 -18.000 6.280 0.315
In degrees long sleeve -2.637 3.748 -2.870 -10.500 5.800
Oro-vestibular deviation implant/sleeve short sleeve 0.995 2.068 0.800 -3.850 5.250 0.832
In degrees long sleeve 0.498 2.968 0.900 -8.750 4.000
Mesio-distal mismatch implant/sleeve short sleeve -0.154 0.395 -0.200 -0.750 0.550 0.035
In mm long sleeve 0.080 0.333 0.130 -0.770 0.840
Oro-vestibular mismatch implant/sleeve short sleeve 0.317 0.522 0.400 -0.900 1.000 0.103
In mm long sleeve 0.184 0.341 0.120 -0.360 1.000
Three-dimensional angulation short sleeve 7.357 3.729 7.200 1.400 13.600 0.007
In degrees long sleeve 4.552 2.279 4.400 0.300 10.600
Mesio-distal mismatch at implant base short sleeve -0.043 0.555 -0.020 -0.960 0.860 0.549
In mm long sleeve 0.053 0.510 0.060 -0.980 0.970
Oro-vestibular mismatch at implant base short sleeve 0.118 0.655 0.060 -0.920 1.370 0.519
In mm long sleeve -0.009 0.509 -0.030 -1.090 1.390
Vertical mismatch at implant base short sleeve -0.253 0.368 -0.260 -0.980 0.340 0.685
In mm long sleeve -0.345 0.807 -0.390 -2.150 1.220
Cumulated mismatch at implant base short sleeve 0.897 0.335 0.920 0.170 1.640 0.402
In mm long sleeve 1.013 0.482 0.930 0.090 2.380
Mesio-distal mismatch at implant tip short sleeve 0.417 1.515 -0.060 -1.770 3.010 0.919
In mm long sleeve 0.310 0.853 0.200 -1.280 1.800
Oro-vestibular mismatch at implant tip short sleeve -0.664 1.074 -0.850 -2.670 1.850 0.242
In mm long sleeve -0.297 0.988 -0.500 -1.800 1.980
Vertical mismatch at implant tip short sleeve -0.150 0.352 -0.150 -0.960 0.440 0.362
In mm long sleeve -0.302 0.806 -0.350 -2.120 1.250
Cumulated mismatch at implant tip short sleeve 1.880 0.737 1.850 0.510 3.030 0.070
In mm long sleeve 1.488 0.598 1.460 0.260 2.460