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Table 2 Comparison of deviations and angulations between pilot-drill guided and full-guided implant insertion. The means, their standard deviations (SD), medians, minima and maxima are shown. The p-values are resulting from a pair-wise comparison. P-values for statistically significant differences are marked in bold font

From: Pilot-drill guided vs. full-guided implant insertion in artificial mandibles—a prospective laboratory study in fifth-year dental students

Parameter Group Mean ± SD Median Minimum Maximum p-value
Mesio-distal deviation implant/sleeve pilot-drill guided -3.85 5.35 -2.89 -18.00 6.28 0.144
In degrees full-guided 0.41 2.65 0.63 -5.50 6.60
Oro-vestibular deviation implant/sleeve pilot-drill guided 0.72 0.85 0.85 -8.75 5.25 0.332
In degrees full-guided 0.31 2.69 0.28 -5.70 7.60
Mesio-distal mismatch implant/sleeve pilot-drill guided -0.02 0.38 0.00 -0.77 0.84 < 0.001
In mm full-guided -0.14 0.39 -0.10 -1.13 0.90
Oro-vestibular mismatch implant/sleeve pilot-drill guided 0.24 0.43 0.25 -0.90 1.00 0.079
In mm full-guided 0.15 0.47 0.17 -1.50 1.15
Three-dimensional angulation pilot-drill guided 5.792 3.290 4.850 0.300 13.600 < 0.001
In degrees full-guided 3.388 1.647 3.300 0.300 7.500
Mesio-distal mismatch at implant base pilot-drill guided 0.011 0.527 0.040 -0.980 0.970 0.601
In mm full-guided -0.027 0.437 -0.025 -0.910 1.060
Oro-vestibular mismatch at implant base pilot-drill guided 0.048 0.575 -0.005 -1.090 1.390 0.284
In mm full-guided 0.129 0.562 0.160 -1.380 1.380
Vertical mismatch at implant base pilot-drill guided -0.304 0.647 -0.325 -2.150 1.220 0.026
In mm full-guided -0.040 0.448 -0.005 -0.910 1.220
Cumulated mismatch at implant base pilot-drill guided 0.962 0.424 0.925 0.090 2.380 0.007
In mm full-guided 0.768 0.355 0.700 0.170 2.060
Mesio-distal mismatch at implant tip pilot-drill guided 0.358 1.184 0.085 -1.770 3.010 0.231
In mm full-guided 0.055 0.936 0.040 -1.560 2.100
Oro-vestibular mismatch at implant tip pilot-drill guided -0.459 1.033 -0.525 -2.670 1.980 0.308
In mm full-guided -0.274 0.949 -0.225 -2.180 2.240
Vertical mismatch at implant tip pilot-drill guided -0.235 0.645 -0.180 -2.120 1.250 0.047
In mm full-guided 0.001 0.453 0.010 -0.890 1.240
Cumulated mismatch at implant tip pilot-drill guided 1.662 0.685 1.660 0.260 3.030 0.004
In mm full-guided 1.304 0.574 1.185 0.450 2.750