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Table 2 Summary of human studies

From: The impact of simvastatin intervention on the healing of bone, soft tissue, and TMJ cartilage in dentistry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Procedure type Group and study type Key results
Gouda et al. 2017
6 patients
8 sinus lifts in sites with < 8 mm available bone.
CBCT at 1 week and 9 months to determine the change in bone height and %age of bone loss.
Histomorphometry to determine new bone formation rate
Experimental group: 7.21 mg simvastatin/1 g beta-TCP
Control: beta-TCP
SSD in new bone formation of maxillary sinus bone grafting. More in the SIM group.
No SSD in the amount of bone loss between both groups
Ranjan et al. 2017
20 patients, 40 bilateral periodontal intrabony defects.
Open flap debridement.
Clinical and radiographic outcomes
Experimental group: OFD + 1.2 SIM compared to Control: OFD + placebo.
GI, PI, PD, CAL at 3, 6, 9 months.
Bone fill assessment
SSD decrease in PD. GI and increase in CAL in the experimental group.
No SSD in PI.
SSD increase in the amount and percentage of bone fill in the experimental group
Kinra et al. 2010
15 patients
Bilateral 2-walled or 3-walled periodontal intrabony defects.
Regenerative periodontal therapy with bone grafts.
Clinical and radiographic outcomes
Experimental group: DFDBA and SIM (10–8 M)
Control group: DFDBA
PI, PD, intrabony pocket depth at 10, 24 weeks
SSD in an increase in bone fill, CAL gain, reduction in PD in the experimental group
Chauhan et al., 2015
30 patients
Bilateral impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets.
Extraction and site preservation.
Clinical and radiographic outcomes
Experimental group: Gelfoam with 10 mg simvastatin
Control: Gelfoam
Pain, swelling, bone density with software at 3 months
No SSD in facial swelling and pain between both groups.
SSD increase in bone density (calculated by gray level histogram) in the experimental group
Pradeep et al. 2012
72 patients
Mandibular molar buccal Class II furcation defects.
Non-surgical periodontal therapy.
Radiographic assessment of (PD), (RVAL) vertical and horizontal (RHAL) attachment levels
Group I: SRP plus placebo
Group II: SRP plus 1.2-mg SIM
Recall at Baseline, 3 and 6 months
SSD in the experimental group < control
SSD in PD in the experimental group at all periods.
SSD increase in bone fill, RVAL, RHAL in the experimental group
Madi M, Kassem A 2018
N = 40
Free gingival graft procedure.
Visual analog scale for pain and discomfort scoring.
Wound healing score
4 groups: group I: Simvastatin suspension (S), group II: simvastatin/chitosan gel (SC), group III: chitosan gel (C), group IV: petroleum gel (P).
Recall at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 days
SSD in VAS and wound healing score at 3, 7, 15 days in the group II, simvastatin/chitosan gel (SC) application
  1. DFDBA demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, TCP tricalcium phosphate, OFD open flap debridement, SSD statistical significant difference, GI gingival index, PI plaque index, PD probing depth, CAL clinical attachment level, SRP scaling and root planning, SIM simvastatin, VAS visual analog scale