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Table 1 Plaque-covered areas before and after brushing and plaque removal rates

From: Efficacy of electric-powered cleaning instruments in edentulous patients with implant-supported full-arch fixed prostheses: a crossover design

Instrument Plaque-covered area Plaque removal rate
Before (%) After (%) p value Plaque removal rate (%) Adjusted p vs. brush
All subjects (n = 9)
 Brush 38.9 ± 7.2 23.1 ± 5.8 0.107 53.3 ± 8.5  
 AF 30.7 ± 7.1 10.7 ± 3.6 0.027* 70.9 ± 6.5 0.656
 OralB 36.0 ± 6.5 9.8 ± 2.4 0.004** 75.4 ± 6.3 0.139
 SD 35.4 ± 5.5 9.6 ± 2.2 0.001** 74.4 ± 4.2 0.352
 Total (n = 36) 35.2 ± 3.2 13.3 ± 2.1 < 0.0001**   
Poor brushing group (n = 5)
 Brush 46.3 ± 10.7 29.6 ± 8.9 0.266 35.3 ± 8.5  
 AF 32.6 ± 10.4 12.2 ± 5.9 0.137 69.4 ± 9.4 0.144
 OralB 33.4 ± 9.3 8.3 ± 6.3 0.053 80.7 ± 6.3 0.008*
 SD 30.6 ± 7.2 8.2 ± 2.7 0.032* 75.7 ± 5.5 0.049*
Good brushing group (n = 4)
 Brush 29.6 ± 8.2 14.9 ± 5.3 0.193 75.9 ± 2.8  
 AF 28.3 ± 10.8 8.9 ± 4.4 0.170 72.7 ± 10.0 > 0.999
 OralB 39.2 ± 10.2 11.7 ± 4.1 0.068 68.8 ± 12.1 > 0.999
 SD 41.4 ± 8.7 11.5 ± 3.8 0.034* 72.7 ± 7.2 > 0.999
Buccal (n = 9)
 Brush 37.3 ± 7.1 22.1 ± 5.1 0.104 52.8 ± 7.9  
 AF 27.9 ± 6.3 9.4 ± 3.2 0.023* 70.1 ± 7.3 0.210
 OralB 31.1 ± 6.0 7.3 ± 2.4 0.004** 77.7 ± 6.5 0.023*
 SD 32.9 ± 6.3 6.9 ± 1.7 0.003** 79.5 ± 3.7 0.042*
 Total (n = 36) 32.3 ± 3.1 11.4 ± 1.9 < 0.0001**   
Palatal (n = 9)
 Brush 42.1 ± 7.7 26.0 ± 7.6 0.143 53.1 ± 10.4  
 AF 38.2 ± 9.4 13.8 ± 5.0 0.035* 68.2 ± 7.4 0.879
 OralB 44.4 ± 7.8 15.9 ± 4.1 0.007* 71.7 ± 6.0 0.517
 SD 43.8 ± 7.8 17.4 ± 4.5 0.002** 66.1 ± 5.7 > 0.999
 Total (n = 36) 42.3 ± 4.0 18.2 ± 2.7 < 0.0001**   
  1. Unpaired t tests with Welch’s correction were performed to compare the two groups. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunn’s multiple comparisons test, was used to determine statistically significant differences. Significant differences are shown as italic numbers. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.005