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Table 3 Comparison of CT mean gray values (average of the axial, coronal, and sagittal ROIs) as a function of arch, dental region, insertion torque, and bone types as classified by CT visual assessment and by intra-surgical tactile evaluation

From: Relation between insertion torque and tactile, visual, and rescaled gray value measures of bone quality: a cross-sectional clinical study with short implants

Variable Meana Std error 95% confidence interval P value (F; DF)
Arch     < 0.001
 Maxilla 1358A 38.1 [1281–1436] (27.974; 1)
 Mandible 1636B 36.1 [1563–1709]  
Dental region     0.014
 Premolar 1661A 68.7 [1521–1800] (6.641; 1)
 Molar 1460B 36.7 [1386–1535]  
Insertion torque     0.002
 < 15 N cm 1375A 49.5 [1274–1476] (7.595; 2)
 15 to 35 N cm 1510AB 49.5 [1409–1611]  
 > 35 N cm 1667B 56.4 [1552–1782]  
Tactile evaluation     0.001
 Bone type 2 1650A 60.0 [1528–1772] (8.703; 2)
 Bone type 3 1537A 43.8 [1447–1626]  
 Bone type 4 1341B 49.0 [1242–1441]  
CT visual evaluation     0.015
 Bone type 2 1742A 83.4 [1571–1912] (4.828; 2)
 Bone type 3 1495B 46.6 [1399–1590]  
 Bone type 4 1434B 56.2 [1318–1549]  
  1. aMeans followed by distinct letters are statistically different at a significance level of 0.05 (one-way ANOVA and pairwise comparisons by Tukey HSD)