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Table 1 List of excluded studies (with reason)

From: Efficacy of orthodontic mini implants for en masse retraction in the maxilla: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Reason for exclusion
Barros et al. (2017) [3] Anchorage loss at first molar not specified
Borsos et al. (2012) [7] No en masse retraction (two step canine and front retraction)
Dai et al. (2009) [10] Chinese language
Durrani et al. (2017) [13] Anchorage loss a first molar not specified
El-Beialy et al. (2009) [14] Anchorage loss a first molar not specified
Garfinkle et al. (2008) [16] Anchorage loss at first molar not specified
Heo et al. (2007) [18] No mini implants used for anchorage
Herman et al. (2006) [19] Anchorage loss a first molar not specified
Janson et al. (2013) [22] Anchorage loss a first molar not specified
Jee et al. (2014) [23] Use of mini implants and mini-plates
Kuroda et al. (2009) [27] T0 ceph before leveling (anchorage loss not specified during en masse retraction only)
Liu et al. (2011) [29] Anchorage loss at first molar not specified
Ma et al. (2015) [30] Full-text unavailable (requested but no response from authors)
Miyazawa et al. (2010) [33] Anchorage loss at first molar not specified
Monga et al. (2016) [35] Retrospective study
Park et al. (2004) [38] Case report
Park et al. (2007) [40] Case report
Park et al. (2008) [41] Retrospective study
Santiago et al. (2009) [43] No en masse retraction, anchorage loss at first molar not specified
Shi et al. (2008) [44] Extraction of premolars or molars
Thiruvenkatachari et al. (2006) [46] Canine retraction only
Turkoz et al. (2011) [47] No premolars extracted
Upadhyay et al. (2012) [51] No premolar extraction
Gollner et al. (2009) [17] No premolar extraction
Wehrbein et al. (1996a) [55] Case report
Wehrbein et al. (1996b) [56] Case report
Xu et al. (2008) [59] Language not meeting inclusion criteria
Xun et al. (2004) [61] Language not meeting inclusion criteria
Yao et al. (2008) [62] Retrospective study, mini-plates, and mini implants used