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Table 1 Patient recruitment

From: Novel expandable short dental implants in situations with reduced vertical bone height—technical note and first results

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
1. Adult patients, male and female 1. Comorbidity ASA category ≥ III
2. Partially/totally edentulous patients 2. Pregnancy, bruxism
3. Alveolar process atrophy Cawood et Howell category ≥ IV 3. Smoking ≥ 10 cigarettes/day
4. Minimum vertical bone height of 7–9 mm for placement of short implants (5–7-mm length) 4. Radiotherapy ≥ 50 Gy [72] or
5. Intravenous bisphosphonate therapy [73] with a significant risk of developing osteo(radio)necrosis of the jaw
5. Patients without willingness to accept vertical bone augmentation 6. Psychiatric comorbidity that could influence course of treatment
  7. Untreated or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
  8. Highly atrophic jaws that require vertical augmentation