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Table 9 Included studies—surgical treatment of peri-implantitis: alternative measures for surface decontamination

From: Efficacy of alternative or adjunctive measures to conventional treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication Design Population Case definition Period Test Control Mean (SD) outcome
Deppe et al. [40] CCT, parallel 32 patients PD ≥5 mm, BOP + progressive vertical bone loss 5 years OHI + open flapa surgery + air polishing + carbon dioxide laser (cw mode, 2.5 W, 12 × 5 s) decontamination + soft tissue resection OHI + open flapb surgery + air polishing + soft tissue resection Test
   73 implants machined, rough- and medium-rough surfaces      SBI: 0.6 (0.3) (BL) to 1.8 (1.1) (48 months, implant level)
        PD: 6.1 (1.6) (BL) to 3.4 (1.5) mm (48 months, implant level)
        Control
        SBI: 0.7 (0.8) (BL) to 1.1 (1.2) (48 months, implant level)
        PD: 5.1 (1.3) (BL) to 4.3 (1.2) mm (48 months, implant level)
        Comparable outcomes in both groups
De Waal et al. [38] RCT, parallel 30 patients PD ≥5 mm, BOP + and/or suppuration 12 months OHI/mechanical debridement + resective therapy (apical re-positioned flap + bone re-contouring) + surface debridement using surgical gauzes soaked in saline + decontamination using 0.12 % CHX + 0.05 % cetylpyridinium chloride CPC OHI/mechanical debridement + resective therapy (apical re-positioned flap + bone re-contouring) + surface debridement using surgical gauzes soaked in saline + decontamination using placebo solution Test
   79 implants machined, rough- and medium-rough surfaces Bone loss ≥2 mm     BOP: 80.4 (26.5) (BL) to 60.5 (30.1) % (12 months, implant level)
        PD: 6.6 (1.6) (BL) to 4.3 (2.1) mm (12 months, implant level)
        MBL: 4.3 (2.1) (BL) to 5.0 (2.5) mm (12 months, implant level)
        Control
        BOP: 79.7 (28.1) (BL) to 57.2 (29.0) % (12 months, implant level)
        PD: 5.5 (1.4) (BL) to 3.7 (0.8) mm (12 months, implant level)
        MBL: 3.6 (1.9) (BL) to 3.9 (2.0) mm (12 months, implant level)
        No sign. differences in BOP and PD reductions between groups
De Waal et al. [39] RCT, parallel 44 patients PD ≥5 mm, BOP + and/or suppuration 12 months OHI/mechanical debridement + resective therapy (apical re-positioned flap + bone re-contouring) + surface debridement using surgical gauzes soaked in saline + decontamination using 0.12 % CHX + 0.05 % cetylpyridinium chloride OHI/mechanical debridement + resective therapy (apical re-positioned flap + bone re-contouring) + surface debridement using surgical gauzes soaked in saline + decontamination using 2.0 % CHX Test
   108 implants machined, rough- and medium-rough surfaces Bone loss ≥2 mm     BOP: 82.1 (23.9) (BL) to 42.7 (34.2) % (12 months, implant level)
        PD: 4.7 (1.0) (BL) to 3.0 (0.7) mm (12 months, implant level)
        MBL: 4.0 (1.5) (BL) to 4.3 (1.7) mm (12 months, implant level)
        Control
        BOP: 74.2 (27.8) (BL) to 37.0 (35.5) % (12 months, implant level)
        PD: 5.0 (1.2) (BL) to 2.9 (0.7) mm (12 months, implant level)
        MBL: 4.1 (1.6) (BL) to 4.1 (1.7) mm (12 months, implant level)
        No sign. differences in BOP and PD reductions between groups
Papadopoulos et al. [41] RCT, parallel 16 patients PD ≥6 mm, BOP + and/or suppuration 6 months Mechanical debridement + open flap surgery + mechanical debridement (plastic curettes) and cotton swabs soaked in saline Mechanical debridement + open flap surgery + mechanical debridement (plastic curettes) and cotton swabs soaked in saline + 980 nm diode laser application Test
   16 implants Radiographic bone loss ≥2 mm     BOP: 81.2 (BL) to 23.8 % (6 months, implant level)
        PD: 5.92 (BL) to 4.44 mm (6 months, implant level)
        Control
        BOP: 81.2 (BL) to 23.8 % (6 months, implant level)
        PD: 5.52 (BL) to 4.31 mm (6 months, implant level)
        Sign. BOP and PD reductions in both groups at 6 months
  1. BL baseline, BOP bleeding on probing, CCT non-randomized controlled clinical study, CHX chlorhexidine digluconate, MBL marginal bone level, OHI oral hygiene instructions, PD probing pocket depth, RCT randomized controlled clinical study, SBI sulcus bleeding index
  2. aSubgroup analysis of n = 17 implants
  3. bSubgroup analysis of n = 16 implants