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Table 4 Included studies—nonsurgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis: adjunctive antiseptic therapy

From: Efficacy of alternative or adjunctive measures to conventional treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication Design Population Case definition Period Test Control Mean (SD) outcome
Strooker et al. [22] RCT Split-mouth design 16 patients each with 4 mandibular implants and bar retained over denture Not reported 5 months Supra-/subgingival scaling (carbon curettes) + polishing (rubber cup) + phosphoric acid gel (35 %) in sulcus for 1 min Supra-/subgingival scaling (carbon curettes) + polishing (rubber cup) Once every month Test (subject level)
      Once every month   BOP: 30.5 (27.5) (BL) to 9.7 (10.97) % (5 months)
        GI: 0.92 (0.75) (BL) to 0.34 (0.38) (5 months)
        PD: 2.97 (0.68) (BL) to 2.34 (0.54) mm (5 months)
        Control (subject level)
        BOP: 29.2 (29.44) (BL) to 14.3 (22.47) % (5 months)
        GI: 0.82 (0.8) (BL) to 0.57 (0.6) (5 months)
        PD: 2.83 (0.57) (BL) to 2.48 (0.49) mm (5 months)
        Sign. between group difference in mean GI values and colony-forming units at 5 months
Porras et al. [20] RCT, parallel 16 patients Supra- and subgingival plaque 3 months OHI + mechanical cleansing (plastic scaler, rubber cups, polishing paste) + local irrigation CHX (0.12 %) and topical CHX gel application + 0.12 % CHX mouthrinse twice for 10 days OHI + mechanical cleansing (plastic scaler, rubber cups, polishing paste) mBI and BOP (%) scores: no sign. differences between groups at 1 and 3 months
   28 implants PD ≤5 mm BOP + “incipient” radiographic lesion     PD values:
   3 implant types (plasma-sprayed Ti/cp Ti (HA-coated Ti)      Test: 3.27 (0.81) (BL) to 2.71 (0.70) mm (3 months)
        Control: 3.48 (0.61) (BL) to 2.55 (0.72) mm (3 months)
        Changes in mean PD between test and control groups at 3 months were statistically significant (0.56 vs. 0.93 mm)
        Microbiological improvements in both groups
Thone-Mühling et al. [17] RCT, parallel 11 patients BOP + and/or GI ≥1 absence of radiographic bone loss during the last 2 years 8 months OHI + mechanical cleansing (plastic scaler and polyetheretherketone-coated ultrasonic instruments) + topical CHX gel application once + full mouth disinfection (deep scaling in one session + CHX disinfection of tongue and tonsils) + 0.2 % CHX mouthrinse 2×/day and tonsil spraying 1×/day for 14 days OHI + mechanical cleansing (plastic scaler and polyetheretherketone-coated ultrasonic instruments) + full mouth scaling in one session Test
   36 implants      BOP: 0.22 (0.11) (BL) to 0.16 (0.09) % (8 months)
   2 implant types      GI: 0.6 (0.24) (BL) to 0.44 (0.23) (8 months)
        PD: 3.4 (0.68) (BL) to 2.82 (0.59) mm (8 months)
        Control
        BOP: 0.17 (0.19) (BL) to 0.17 (0.11) % (8 months)
        GI: 0.62 (0.36) (BL) to 0.43 (0.37) (8 months)
        PD: 3.49 (0.78) (BL) to 2.84 (0.64) mm (8 months)
        Bacterial recolonization over time
  1. BL baseline, BOP bleeding on probing, GI modified gingival index, mBI modified bleeding index, OHI oral hygiene instructions, PD probing pocket depth, RCT randomized controlled clinical study