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Table 3 Included studies—nonsurgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis: alternative or adjunctive measures for biofilm removal

From: Efficacy of alternative or adjunctive measures to conventional treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication Design Population Case definition Period Test Control Mean (SD) outcome
Ji et al. [15] RCT, parallel 24 patients PD ≥4 mm, BOP + no radiographic bone loss compared with baseline (i.e. immediately after prosthesis installation) 3 months OHI + mechanical debridement (ultrasonic scaler with carbon fibre tips) + air abrasive device, glycine powder (sites with PD ≥4 mm) OHI + mechanical debridement (ultrasonic scaler with carbon fibre tips) Test
   33 implants     BI: 1.4 (0.57) (BL) to 1.1 (0.58) (3 months, subject level)
   Molar/premolar sites      BI: 1.7 (0.93) (BL) to 1.1 (0.98) (3 months, implant level)
   1 implant system      Sites without bleeding: 29.3 %
        PD: 3.6 (0.47) (BL) to 3.2 (0.48) mm (3 months, subject level)
        Control
        BI: 1.5 (0.65) (BL) to 1.0 (0.85) (3 months, subject level)
        BI: 1.7 (1.0) (BL) to 0.9 (1.1) (3 months, implant level)
        Sites without bleeding: 42 %
        PD: 3.5 (0.5) (BL) to 3.1 (0.38) mm (3 months, subject level)
De Siena et al. [18] CCT, parallel 30 patients BOP or spontaneous bleeding with local swelling 6 months OHI + mechanical debridement Teflon curettes, polishing) + air abrasive device, glycine powder OHI + mechanical debridement Teflon curettes, polishing) Test
   No information on number and types of implants PD ≤3.5 mm     PD: 3.0 (0.4) (BL) to 2.4 (0.5) mm (6 months, subject level)
    Bone loss ≤ 3.0 mm     13 patients did not present bleeding at 6 months
        Control
        PD: 2.9 (0.4) (BL) to 3.0 (0.6) mm (6 months, subject level)
        9 patients did not present bleeding at 6 months
        BI and PD scores sign. lower in the test group at 6 months
Riben Grundström et al. [21] RCT, parallel 37 patients PD ≥4 mm, BOP + with or without suppuration 12 months OHI + air abrasive device, glycine powder OHI + mechanical debridement (ultrasonic scaler with plastic coated tips) Test
   One implant per subject used Bone loss ≤2 mm from implant shoulder   Repeated treatment at 3 and 6 months Repeated treatment at 3 and 6 months BOP: 43.9 (7.3) (BL) to 12.1 (3.8) % (12 months, subject level)
   Test N = 19      Number of diseased sites (pocket depth ≥4 mm with bleeding/suppuration)
   Control N = 18      38 % (BL) to 8 % (12 months, subject level)
        Control
        BOP: 53.7 (7.9) (BL) to 18.6 (6.4) % (12 months, subject level)
        Number of diseased sites (pocket depth ≥4 mm with bleeding/suppuration)
        52 % (BL) to 17 % (12 months, subject level)
        No significant differences between groups for either reduction of
        BOP or of diseased sites
  1. BI bleeding index, BL baseline, BOP bleeding on probing, CCT non-randomized controlled clinical study, OHI oral hygiene instructions, PD probing pocket depth, RCT randomized controlled clinical study