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Table 2 Assessment of risk of bias and heterogeneity within and across the included studies

From: Genomic analyses of early peri-implant bone healing in humans: a systematic review

Category Ivanovski et al. [ 34 ] Donos et al. 2011 [ 35 ] Bryington et al. [ 36 ] Thalji et al. [ 37 ]
Study design
  Comparison None (only SLActive) SLA vs. SLActive TiOBlast vs. Osseospeed TiOBlast vs. Osseospeed
  Setting University University University University
  Population, inclusion criteria 9 healthy volunteers with no mandibular third molars, no contraindications for oral surgery; age 21 to 48, median 29 years 9 healthy volunteers with no mandibular third molars; age 21 to 48, median 29 years 6 women, 4 men; implant patients, systemically healthy (no HTN, diabetes, CVD); age 25 to 58, mean 36.2 years 9 women, 2 men; implant patients, systemically healthy; age 47 to 69, mean 60.2 years
  Exclusion criteria Smokers Smokers Smokers, pregnancy, periodontal/periapical disease, subjects taking bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, corticosteroids Smokers, uncontrolled diabetes, history of head/neck radiotherapy, taking corticosteroids, bisphosphonates
  Comparability of groups Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
  Potential confounders, e.g., post-op medication Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear
  Power calculation No No No No
  Statistical correction For multiple sampling For multiple sampling Unclear For multiple sampling
Methods
  Tissue analyzed Peri-implant tissue Peri-implant tissue Implant-adherent cells Implant-adherent cells
  Genetic material analyzed Total RNA Total RNA Total RNA Total RNA
  Success rate Unclear 16/18 samples (88.8%) 7/10 subject samples (70%) Unclear
  Genotyping method Microarray Microarray RT-PCR Whole-genome microarray
  Genotype counts Yes Yes Yes Yes
  Blinding Unclear Unclear Yes Unclear
  Reproducibility, validated genotyping accuracy No No No No
  1. All studies were judged to be at a high risk of bias with substantial heterogeneity across studies.